When it comes to evidence informed practice everyone agrees that it sounds like a good idea but to many people are not sure what articles they should be considering. There is a great deal of variety in what the experts consider to be evidence based information but in the Library when you ask me for an evidence based literature search I focus my searching on looking for Randomized Controlled Trials, Meta-Analysis and Systematic Reviews. Here are some great descriptions on what you can expect from each of these different types of articles.
Types of Articles
* Bastian, Hilda. 5 key things to know about meta-analysis<http://bit.ly/1aOtWSZ>. Scientific American Blogs. 2014
* Study Design 101: Randomized Controlled Trial<http://bit.ly/1dRNo7e> [Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library; 2011]
* J R Soc Med. 2003 March; 96(3): 118-121. Five steps to conducting a systematic review<http://1.usa.gov/1l1kLZg>. Khalid S Khan, Regina Kunz, Jos Kleijnen, and Gerd Antes
Reviewing the articles
This article and websites might help you in reviewing the results I send you from my literature searches.
* CMAJ. 2004 Aug 17;171(4):353-8. Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 1. Relative risk reduction, absolute risk reduction and number needed to treat<http://bit.ly/1asAwDY>. Barratt A, Wyer PC, Hatala R, McGinn T, Dans AL, Keitz S, Moyer V, For GG; Evidence-Based Medicine Teaching Tips Working Group.
* 11 questions to help you make sense of a trial<http://bit.ly/1mwRlxz> [Critical Appraisal Skills Program; 2013]
* 10 questions to help you make sense of a review<http://bit.ly/1eEU3j8> [Critical Appraisal Skills Program; 2013]
Leave a comment on this post: http://bit.ly/1hOl9pa
Carol A. Cooke
Acting MHIKNET Librarian
Neil John Maclean Health Sciences Library
University of Manitoba
With the latest windchill alerts questions may be coming in from your patients about frostbite injuries, hypothermia and other concerns relating to windchill. Here are a few recent articles which may be of interest to those treating or who might be advising people. We've also selected a few web sites about windchill and frostbite from the Government of Canada and Professor Popsicle [G.G. Giesbrecht]. Two articles are not freely available but we can order them for you through MHIKNET Library Services<mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org>.
1. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jan 13;364(2):189-90. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1000538.
A controlled trial of a prostacyclin and rt-PA in the treatment of severe frostbite<http://bit.ly/1cCACGA>.
Cauchy E, Cheguillaume B, Chetaille E.
2. Wilderness Environ Med. 2011 Jun;22(2):156-66. doi: 10.1016/j.wem.2011.03.003.
Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite.
McIntosh SE, Hamonko M, Freer L, Grissom CK, Auerbach PS, Rodway GW, Cochran A, Giesbrecht G, McDevitt M, Imray CH, Johnson E, Dow J, Hackett PH; Wilderness Medical Society. PMID: 21664561The Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite. We present a review of pertinent pathophysiology. We then discuss primary and secondary prevention measures and therapeutic management. Recommendations are made regarding each treatment and its role in management. These recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks/burdens for each modality according to methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians.
3. Crit Care Nurs Q. 2012 Jan-Mar;35(1):50-63. doi: 10.1097/CNQ.0b013e31823d3e9b.
Evidence-based thermoregulation for adult trauma patients.
Block J, Lilienthal M, Cullen L, White A. PMID: 22157492The purpose of this project was to develop a staff nurse-led initiative to
implement and evaluate evidence-based thermoregulation care for adult trauma
patients. An evidence-based practice protocol was developed and implemented,
addressing varying patient needs across the spectrum of hypothermia seen in
practice, serving as a guide for improving thermoregulation care in trauma
patients. There were 2 key pieces to the evidence-based practice protocol. The
first piece consisted of an interdisciplinary thermoregulation flowchart to
provide focused care based on patient temperatures. The flowchart outlined
progressive interventions for increasing hypothermia. The second piece outlined
the nursing assistant role, preparing the care area before patient arrival and
assisting nursing staff during trauma care. Data from staff questionnaires and
patient documentation were used in a pre- and postevaluation of the practice
change. Improvements were demonstrated in staff feeling better prepared to
identify patients with hypothermia, treat hypothermia, and document thermal care
of trauma patients. Clinically important improvement in temperature control
during emergency treatment in both moderate and severe hypothermic patients were
observed. Ongoing monitoring is underway to promote integration of the practice
4. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2011 Jun 23;19:41. doi: 10.1186/1757-7241-19-41.
Comparison of three different prehospital wrapping methods for preventing hypothermia--a crossover study in humans.<http://1.usa.gov/1dh2mU1>
Thomassen Ø, Færevik H, Østerås Ø, Sunde GA, Zakariassen E, Sandsund M, Heltne JK, Brattebø G.
BACKGROUND: Accidental hypothermia increases mortality and morbidity in trauma patients. Various methods for insulating and wrapping hypothermic patients are used worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare the thermal insulating effects and comfort of bubble wrap, ambulance blankets / quilts, and Hibler's method, a low-cost method combining a plastic outer layer with an insulating layer. METHODS: Eight volunteers were dressed in moistened clothing, exposed to a cold and windy environment then wrapped using one of the three different insulation methods in random order on three different days. They were rested quietly on their back for 60 minutes in a cold climatic chamber. Skin temperature, rectal temperature, oxygen consumption were measured, and metabolic heat production was calculated. A questionnaire was used for a subjective evaluation of comfort, thermal sensation, and shivering. RESULTS: Skin temperature was significantly higher 15 minutes after wrapping using Hibler's method compared with wrapping with ambulance blankets / quilts or bubble wrap. There were no differences in core temperature between the three insulating methods. The subjects reported more shivering, they felt colder, were more uncomfortable, and had an increased heat production when using bubble wrap compared with the other two methods. Hibler's method was the volunteers preferred method for preventing hypothermia. Bubble wrap was the least effective insulating method, and seemed to require significantly higher heat production to compensate for increased heat loss. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that a combination of vapour tight layer and an additional dry insulating layer (Hibler's method) is the most efficient wrapping method to prevent heat loss, as shown by increased skin temperatures, lower metabolic rate and better thermal comfort. This should then be the method of choice when wrapping a wet patient at risk of developing hypothermia in prehospital environments.
* Canada's Windchill Index<http://bit.ly/1cCBVFx> [Environment Canada; 2014]
* It's Your Health - Extreme Cold<http://bit.ly/KFU501> [Health Canada; 2013]
* Accidental Hypothermia<http://bit.ly/1kruxDx> [Gordon G. Giesbrecht]